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Contrary to concerns that restrictive opioid prescribing might increase the number of patient call-ins and refill requests, one academic institution had significantly fewer call-ins and refills after it implemented a strict postoperative opioid prescribing protocol on Jan. 1, 2018.
“Orthopedic surgeons might be reluctant to change practice without evidence that new, more-restrictive practice will not impede patient care,” the researchers wrote. “As the current study demonstrates, there is room to significantly decrease postoperative opioid prescriptions in total joint arthroplasty. This places patients at lower risk of opioid abuse and diversion without significantly altering the risk of postoperative complications or compromising postoperative pain control.”
Opioid overuse is a major public health concern, and orthopedic surgeons may overprescribe opioids after surgery. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in Iowa City implemented strict postoperative opioid prescription guidelines that are based on the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines. As part of the protocol, patients receive a preoperative education session that emphasizes risks associated with opioid use. Before initiating this protocol, postoperative drug choice and quantity had not been standardized.
To examine changes in opioid prescriptions and the number of call-ins, postoperative complications, and prescription refill requests after the implementation of the restrictive opioid prescribing protocol, investigators at the institution conducted a retrospective study.
Andrew J. Holte, a researcher in the department of orthopedics and rehabilitation, and his colleagues reviewed cases from June 2017 to February 2018. Their analysis included 399 patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty.
In all, 282 patients underwent surgery before the restrictive protocol (the historical cohort) and 117 after (the restrictive cohort). In the historical cohort, about 48% of the patients underwent total knee arthroplasty. In the restrictive cohort, about 44% underwent total knee arthroplasty. Patients had an average age of about 61 years, and approximately 52% were women.
According to comparisons of morphine mg equivalents (MME), the historical cohort received significantly larger mean initial opioid prescriptions (752 MME vs. 387 MME), significantly more refills per patient (0.5 vs. 0.3), and significantly more medication through refills (253 MME vs. 84 MME).
“For reference, 50 pills of 5 mg oxycodone is equivalent to 300 MMEs,” the authors noted.
A multivariable model found that younger age and total knee arthroplasty, compared with total hip arthroplasty, were associated with increased likelihood of requests for refills and patient call-ins.
“Surprisingly, there were significantly more patient call-ins and requests for refills of opioids in the historical cohort,” Mr. Holte and his colleagues said. “Although this study did not collect direct data on patient pain scores, we believe that call-ins and requests for refills are sufficient surrogate markers for inadequate pain control.”
The study does not account for prescriptions from other providers or whether patients took none, some, or all of their filled prescriptions. Future studies are needed to assess how reduced opioid prescriptions affect pain and functional outcomes in the long term, the researchers said.
One or more study authors disclosed potential conflicts of interest. The disclosures can be found in Appendix A, Supplementary Data, at the end of the journal article.
SOURCE: Holte AJ et al. J Arthroplasty. 2019 Feb 20. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.02.022.