For athletes who fail nonoperative care, surgical treatment varies depending on underlying hip pathology and may include femoroplasty, acetabuloplasty, and microfracture as well as labral repair or debridement. Though data are limited, Philippon and colleagues26 have published promising results in a case series of 28 NHL players after surgical intervention for FAI. All players returned to sport at an average of 3.8 months and players who had surgery within 1 year of injury returned on average 1.1 months sooner than those who waited more than 1 year. Rehabilitation protocol varies between goaltenders compared to defensemen and offensive players due to the different demands required for blocking shots on goal.27
One of the most challenging injuries to correctly identify in the hip area is athletic pubalgia (also referred to as sports hernia or core muscle injury) because pain in the groin may be referred from the lumbar spine, hip joint, urologic, or perineal etiologies.28 Sports hernias involve dilatation of the external ring of the inguinal canal and thinning of the posterior wall. Players may report to the athletic trainer or team physician with a complaint of groin pain that is worse when pushing off with their skate or taking a slap shot.29 On exam, pain can be reproduced by hip extension, contralateral torso rotation, or with a resisted sit-up with palpation of the inferolateral edge of the distal rectus abdominus.30 An MRI with specific sequences centered over the pubic symphysis is usually warranted to aid in the workup of sports hernia. An MRI in these cases may also demonstrate avulsions of the rectus abdominus.31
Most of these injuries are managed conservatively but can warrant surgical intervention if the symptoms persist. In the study by Jakoi and colleagues,32 they identified 43 ice hockey players over an 8-year period (2001-2008) who had repairs of their sports hernias and assessed the statistics during the 2 years prior and 2 years after surgery. The authors found that 80% of these players were able to return to the ice for 2 or more full seasons. The return-to-sport rate was comparable to other sports after sports hernia repair, but players who had played in ≥7 seasons demonstrated a greater decrease in number of games played, goals, assists and time on ice compared to those who had played in ≤6 seasons prior to the time of injury. Between 1989 and 2000, 22 NHL players who failed to respond to nonoperative management of their groin injuries underwent surgical exploration.29 At the time of surgical exploration, their hockey groin syndrome, consisted of small tears in the external oblique aponeurosis through which branches of the ilioinguinal or iliohypogastric could be identified. These surgical procedures were all through a standard inguinal approach and the perforating neurovascular structures were excised, while the main trunk of the ilioinguinal nerve was ablated and the external oblique aponeurosis was repaired and reinforced with Goretex (W.L. Gore & Associates Inc, Flagstaff, AZ). At follow-up, 18 of the 22 players (82%) had no pain and 19 (86%) were able to resume their careers in the NHL.29 Ice hockey players with sports hernias or hockey groin syndrome often return to the sport, but it is important to identify these problems early so that surgical options can be discussed if the player fails conservative management. It is also critical to make sure that all pathology is identified, because in players with mixed sports hernia and FAI, return-to-play results improve when both issues are addressed. In a study of athletes (some of whom were ice hockey players), who had both FAI and sports hernia, and only hernia/pubalgia surgery was performed, 25% of these athletes returned to sport. If only FAI was addressed, 50% of the athletes returned to sport; however, when hernia and FAI were treated, 89% returned to play.33
Adductor strains includes injury to the adductor muscles, pectineus, obturator externus and gracilis, and are prevalent in ice hockey players. A study of elite Swedish ice hockey players published in 1988 reported that adductor strains accounted for 10% (10 of 95) of all injuries.34 Given the prevalence of these injuries, considerable research has been dedicated to understanding their mechanism and prevention.35 Adductor strains within the ice hockey population have been attributed to the eccentric forces on the adductors when players attempt to decelerate the leg during a stride.36 A study of NHL players revealed that a ratio <80% of adductor-to-abductor muscle is the best predictor of a groin strain.37
These injuries are also well known for their recurrence rates, as was the case in an NHL study where 4 of the 9 adductor strains (44%) were recurrent injuries.37 The authors attributed the recurrence to an incomplete rehabilitation program and an accelerated return to sport. This was followed by an NHL prevention program that spanned 2 seasons and analyzed 58 players whose adductor-to-abductor ratio was <80% and placed them into a 6-week intervention program during the preseason.37 Only 3 players sustained an adductor strain in the 2 subsequent seasons after the intervention, compared to 11 strains in the previous 2 seasons. Thus, early identification of muscle strength imbalance coupled with an appropriate intervention program has proven to be an effective means of reducing adductor strains in this at-risk population.
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