Original Research

Treatment of Grade III Acromioclavicular Separations in Professional Baseball Pitchers: A Survey of Major League Baseball Team Physicians

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If the injury occurred at the end of the season, 7 of the 20 orthopedists (35%) who recommended nonoperative treatment said they would change to an operative intervention. Eighteen of 28 responders would have the same algorithm for MLB position players. Team physicians were less likely to recommend operative intervention in position players due to less demand on the arm and increased ability to accommodate the injury by altering their throwing mechanics.

Eighteen (64%) of the team physicians had treated at least 1 professional pitcher with a grade III AC separation in his dominant arm, and 11 (39.3%) had treated >1. Collectively, team physicians had treated 15 professional pitchers operatively, and 51 nonoperatively; only 3 patients converted to operative intervention after a failed nonoperative treatment.

Of the pitchers treated operatively, 93.3% (14) of pitchers returned to their prior level of pitching. The 1 patient who failed to return to the same level of pitching retired instead of returning to play. About 80% (12) of the pitchers had full pain relief, and 93.3% (14) had full range of motion (ROM). The pitcher who failed to regain full ROM also had a concomitant rotator cuff repair. The only complication reported from an operative intervention was a pitcher who sustained a coracoid fracture 10 months postoperatively while throwing 100 mph. Of the pitchers treated nonoperatively, 96% returned to their prior level of pitching, 92.2% (47) had full complete pain relief when throwing, and 100% had full ROM. No differences were observed between the proportion of pitchers who returned to their prior level of pitching, regained full ROM, or had full pain relief in the operative and nonoperative groups (Table 2).

Table 2. Outcomes of Treatment of Grade III AC Separation in 58 Professional Baseball Players




Return to same level of play

14/15 (93.3%)

49/51 (96%)


Full pain relief

12/15 (80%)

47/51 (92.2%)


Full ROM

14/15 (93.3%)

51/51 (100%)


Abbreviations: AC, acromioclavicular; ROM, range of motion.


Controversy persists regarding the optimal management of acute grade III AC separations, with the current available evidence potentially suggesting better cosmetic and radiological results but no definite differences in clinical results.1-6,17,18 In the absence of formal clinical practice guidelines, surgeons rely on their own experience or defer to the anecdotal experience of experts in the field. Our initial hypothesis was false in this survey of MLB team physicians taking care of overhead throwing athletes at the highest level. Our results demonstrate that despite improved techniques and an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of AC joint separations, conservative management is still the preferred treatment for acute grade III AC joint separations in professional baseball pitchers. The proportion of team physicians recommending nonoperative treatment in our series was essentially equivalent to the results reported by McFarland and colleagues13 in 1997, suggesting that the pendulum continues to favor conservative management initially. This status quo likely reflects both the dearth of literature suggesting a substantial benefit of acute operative repair, as well as the ability to accommodate with conservative measures after most grade III AC injuries, even at the highest level of athletic competition.

These results are also consistent with trends from the last few decades. In the 1970s, the overwhelming preference for treating an acute complete AC joint separation was surgical repair, with Powers and Bach10 reporting in a 1974 survey of 163 chairmen of orthopedic programs around the country that 91.5% advocated surgical treatment. However, surgical preference had reversed by the 1990s. Of the 187 chairmen and 59 team physicians surveyed by Cox19 in 1992, 72% and 86% respectively preferred nonoperative treatment in a theoretical 21-year-old athlete with a grade III AC separation. Nissen and Chatterjee20 reported in 2007 on a survey of all American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine surgeons (N = 577) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education orthopedic program residency directors (N = 87) that >80% of responders preferred conservative measures for this acute injury. The reversal of trends has also been corroborated by recent multicenter trials demonstrating no difference in clinical outcomes between operative and nonoperative treatment of high grade AC joint dislocations, albeit these patients were not all high level overhead throwing athletes.17,18

Continue to: The trends in surgical interventions are notable...

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