From the Journals

Risk factors identified for urinary retention after lap hernia repair



Urinary retention following laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair was more likely in patients aged more than 60 years, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and patients with a decreased body mass index, according to findings published in the Journal of Surgical Research.

Dr. Ronald Post (left) and Dr. John Smear (center) and physician assistant Debra Blackshire perform laparoscopic stomach surgery. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons/Samuel Bendet, US Air Force/Creative Commons License

Dr. Ronald Post (left) and Dr. John Smear (center) and physician assistant Debra Blackshire perform laparoscopic stomach surgery.

The researchers note that, while laparoscopic TEP is growing in popularity for inguinal hernia repair, postop urinary retention (POUR) is estimated at 2%-30%, but for open procedures, it is estimated at 0.4%-3%. POUR is linked to the development of urinary tract infections and also hospital readmissions. Since TEP may eventually become the norm, the study authors suggest that identifying patients at higher risk for POUR would contribute to the safety and quality of care for this operation.

In a retrospective chart review of 578 patients who had the procedure between 2009 and 2016, patients over age 60 years, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and those with a body mass index (BMI) of less than or equal to 25.8 kg/m2 were more likely to develop postoperative urinary retention (POUR). Patients with these risk factors were also more likely to develop a urinary tract infection within 30 days, reported Daniel Roadman, a medical student in the department of surgery at Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, and coauthors.

Investigators conducted a retrospective chart review of patients 18 years of age or older with a direct, indirect, and/or femoral inguinal hernia. POUR was defined as “inability to void spontaneously prior to hospital discharge, requiring straight or indwelling catheter placement,” the authors wrote.

Patients were required to void before being discharged. For patients unable to void, an indwelling catheter was placed and removed the following morning. Patients still unable to void at this point were discharged with an indwelling catheter and scheduled for follow-up within 1 week.

POUR occurred in 64 of the 578 patients (11.1%), and was significantly associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, age of 60 years or older, development of urinary tract infection (UTI) within 30 days, and decreased BMI. Patients with POUR had increased incidence of UTI (6.3%), compared with patients without POUR (0.6%; P less than .0001).

Among patients who developed POUR, 54 (84.3%) were admitted for overnight observation with a stay of approximately 1.5 days. Three of these patients (5.6%) had a straight catheterization, and 51 (94.4%) had an indwelling urinary catheter placed. Two patients developed a UTI.

Of the 10 patients discharged home, six (60%) returned to the emergency department for catheterization; two (33.3%) patients had straight catheterization, and four (66.7%) were discharged home with an indwelling catheter. Two of these patients developed a UTI. In both groups, all patients who developed a UTI had an indwelling catheter placed, Mr. Roadman and colleagues reported.

During the study period, institutional protocol changed from routine intraoperative urinary catheterization to catheterization per surgeon discretion, though this did not affect POUR incidence.

“This is the first study to show a significant increase in UTI within 30 days after POUR,” the authors wrote. “Urinary stasis within the bladder due to the inability to void could lead to increased bacterial load and risk of infection.”

“It is important for providers, especially surgeons, to understand the risk of POUR and therefore increased risk of UTI after laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair,” they added. “Identifying patients at higher risk … can help with patient education and expectations.”

No disclosures were reported by the study authors.

SOURCE: Roadman D et al. J Surg Res. 2018;11(231):309-15.

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