Feature

Worsening osteoporosis care for RA patients shows need for action


 

FROM ARTHRITIS CARE & RESEARCH

Osteoporosis care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is suboptimal, and the relative risk of the application of appropriate osteoporosis care in both RA and osteoarthritis patients has been declining steadily over the past decade, according to findings from a large, prospective, observational study.

The study included 11,669 RA patients and 2,829 OA patients in the National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases who were followed from 2003 through 2014 and showed that about half of the RA patients in whom osteoporosis treatment was indicated never received an osteoporosis medication. Further, the decline in the application of appropriate osteoporosis care was apparent even after the release of the 2010 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Prevention and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis, according to the findings, which have been accepted for publication in Arthritis Care & Research (doi: 10.1002/acr.23331).

Dr. Gulsen Ozen University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dr. Gulsen Ozen

“Earlier studies, which included the period before 2003, reported an improvement in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) care rates over time, compared with rates in the late 1990s or early 2000s. Nevertheless, even the improved rates for bone mineral densitometry testing (19%) or treatment with any osteoporosis medication (54%) were low,” study author Gulsen Ozen, MD, said in an interview.

A more recent study in the general population showed that, regardless of glucocorticoid (GC) use, there was a significant decrease in the use of oral bisphosphonates from 1996 to 2012, noted Dr. Ozen of the University of Nebraska, Omaha, and Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

“The evidence from all these studies suggests that, despite a slight improvement in GIOP care, with a decline in overall OP care in the early 2000s, the OP care gap has always been suboptimal and declined over the last decade significantly,” she said, adding that this is “especially more worrisome in glucocorticoid-receiving RA patients,” in whom bone loss and fracture risk are dramatically increased.

“Additionally, considering that rheumatologists do better regarding comorbidity follow-up and management than other specialists who follow patients with rheumatic diseases, the gap for osteoporosis care might be even higher than we reported,” she said.

Indeed, among physicians caring for patients with osteoporosis, there is concern that “we’re on the precipice of further increase in fracture burden,” according to Kenneth Saag, MD, a rheumatologist and professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

The conclusions of the study by Dr. Ozen and her colleagues are disturbing, but “not tremendously surprising,” said Dr. Saag, who also is president of the National Osteoporosis Foundation.

The findings are consistent with those from previous studies, he explained.

For example, Daniel H. Solomon, MD, and his associates showed that only 23% of 623 RA patients, including 236 patients who were taking glucocorticoids at an index visit in 1999, underwent bone densitometry, and only 42% were prescribed a medication (other than calcium and/or vitamin D), that reduces bone loss (Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:3136-42). They also showed that, in 2004, despite a slight improvement vs. prior years, only 48% of 193 RA patients included in a chart review had received a bone mineral density test or medication for osteoporosis, and 64% of those taking more than 5 mg of prednisone for more than 3 months were receiving osteoporosis management (Arthritis Care Res. 2006;55:873-7).

In the current study, Dr. Ozen and her colleagues looked at both RA and OA patients and found that overall, osteoporosis treatment or screening was reported in 67.4% of study subjects over a mean of 5.5 years follow-up. Of those eligible for osteoporosis treatment based on the 2010 ACR guidelines, including 48.4% of RA patients and 17.6% of OA patients, 55% reported osteoporosis medication use. Despite their increased risk of osteoporosis, particularly in the setting of glucocorticoid use, RA patients were not more likely than OA patients to undergo screening or receive treatment (hazard ratio, 1.04).

Dr. Kenneth Saag of the University of Alabama, Birmingham

Dr. Kenneth Saag

After adjusting for numerous demographic and disease-related factors, the investigators found a stable trend with respect to treatment and screening during 2004-2008 vs. 2003, and a significant downward trend after 2008 for both RA and OA patients.

“This suboptimal and decreasing trend for osteoporosis treatment and screening in RA patients is important as the prevalence of osteoporosis leading to fractures in RA, regardless of GC use, is still high, despite aggressive management strategies and the use of [biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic agents],” they wrote.

Factors contributing to the decline

The reasons for the decline after 2008 are not fully known, but data suggest that both patient and clinician factors play a role.

Lack of knowledge, unwillingness to take additional drugs, and cost are among patient factors that may interfere with screening and treatment, and lack of experience and time, and a focus more on disease activity and other comorbid conditions may be among clinician factors, they said.

Other factors that may have affected patient and clinician willingness to pursue care include 2007 cuts in Medicare reimbursement for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a 2006 warning regarding jaw osteonecrosis with bisphosphonate use, and 2007 and 2010 publications about atrial fibrillation and atypical femoral fractures associated with long-term bisphosphonate treatment, they noted.

Dr. Saag agreed that it is difficult to pinpoint exact reasons for the decline, but said the DXA reimbursement cuts have had a significant effect.

“Declining reimbursement is likely one of the major factors, if not the major factor in the decline in testing that has been observed nationally,” he said, explaining that reimbursement was below the break-even point for many physicians in freestanding medical practices, and that slight adjustments have applied only to facilities located in hospitals. As a result, the availability of DXA screening has declined.

The National Osteoporosis Foundation and other organizations such as the International Society for Clinical Densitometry are lobbying for changes, as there is a very strong link between testing and treatment.

“If we can’t get more people tested, we’re unlikely to get more people treated,” Dr. Saag said.

The availability of new agents for the treatment of osteoporosis could also lead to improvements in screening and care, he added.

In July, Amgen submitted to the Food and Drug Administration a supplemental new Biologics License Application for Prolia (denosumab) for the treatment of patients with GIOP. The application is based on a phase 3 study evaluating the safety and efficacy of Prolia, compared with risedronate, in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment. Denosumab was also shown in a phase 3 study presented at the 2016 ACR meeting to result in greater improvement in bone mineral density vs. bisphosphonates across multiple sites, said Dr. Saag, an investigator for the trial.

“So we’re pleased about that finding, and we’re hopeful that eventually denosumab may become another treatment option,” he said, adding that having more choices leads to more personalized care for patients.

“We hope that, if it does receive approval and is utilized, that it may partially help address the gap in treatment that has been identified,” he said, adding that abaloparatide (Tymlos), which is approved for use in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and high fracture risk, and romosozumab, currently in late-phase development, could also eventually help bridge the gap.

Recent guideline update

There is also optimism that a recent update to the 2010 guideline, published in August in Arthritis Care & Research, will help address the problem (Arthritis Care Res. 2017;69:1095-1110).

“We hope that one the most important impacts of the new 2017 ACR GIOP guideline will be increasing the awareness of GIOP care,” Dr. Ozen said, noting that changes in the new guideline will also be helpful for guiding management of certain patients not addressed in the 2010 guideline, including adults under age 40 years and children.

The new guideline also incorporates FRAX hip fracture scores into the risk-assessment recommendations .

“Lastly, the addition of other oral bisphosphonates and denosumab to the guideline has broadened the potential therapeutic options for physicians and patients,” she said.

Dr. Lenore Buckley of Yale University, New Haven Conn.

Dr. Lenore Buckley

Lenore Buckley, MD, the first author on the 2017 guideline, agreed that the new focus on fracture data, as well as new information on clinical decision making over time (with reassessments of risk and treatment effectiveness vs. just an initial assessment) could help improve screening and treatment of patients. The incorporation of fracture data, in particular, could help patients better understand their risk level, as the concept of fractures may have more impact than that of bone mineral density – and could thereby improve willingness to undergo treatment.

Efforts by the ACR to make these guidelines widely known among clinicians could also help promote improved screening and treatment, said Dr. Buckley, a professor of internal medicine and pediatrics at Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

And that awareness is what is needed most, Dr. Ozen said.

“What we need in osteoporosis care of RA or GIOP patients is more awareness and education about risk-benefit ratios of antiosteoporotic medications instead of focusing on the medication type. We hope that our paper showing the worsening osteoporosis care and the new 2017 ACR GIOP guideline provide more awareness and guidance for the physicians managing these patients,” she said, adding that overcoming obstacles in osteoporosis care requires identification and attention to all potential causes for the suboptimal management of osteoporosis from both patients’ and physicians’ perspectives.

“With the improvement in management strategies of rheumatic diseases ... we anticipate improvement in life expectancy and cardiovascular outcomes in RA and inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In this regard, with aging and decreased but ongoing clinical or subclinical chronic inflammation, it is highly likely that we might be dealing with much older patients with higher osteoporosis and fracture risks. Considering the significant contribution of fractures on cost, disability, morbidity, and mortality of these diseases, rheumatologists and other specialists should work together more vigilantly to overcome the obstacles and improve osteoporosis care,” she said.

Dr. Ozen and Dr. Buckley reported having no conflicts of interest. Dr. Saag is an investigator and consultant for Amgen, Merck, and Radius Health, and is a consultant for Lilly.

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