Clinical Edge

Summaries of Must-Read Clinical Literature, Guidelines, and FDA Actions

MMI a Valid Tool for Cognitive Training Intervention

Schizophr Res; ePub 2018 Dec 21; Hansen, et al

The MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation Inventory (MMI), an 18-item instrument with 5 scales that assess students' motivation during academic tasks, is a valid and reliable tool to use with individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders undergoing a cognitive training intervention, according to a recent study. Participants included 181 people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders enrolled in cognitive training in 4 countries. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) assessed construct validity. Quality of fit was determined using the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR), and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). Researchers found:

  • Consistent with the original MMI validation studies used in academic settings, CFI values indicated a good fit, as did the SRMR and RMSEA values.
  • The scales were correlated yet distinct.
  • Cronbach's alpha values ranged from good to excellent and factor loadings showed that all items loaded very well onto their intended factors.
  • The MMI had a positive relationship to treatment intensity.


Hansen MC, Jones BD, Eack SM, et al. Validation of the MUSIC Model of Motivation Inventory for use with cognitive training for schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A multinational study. [Published online ahead of print December 21, 2018]. Schizophr Res. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2018.11.037.