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Can Birth Season Predict ADHD in Early Midlife?

Psychiatry Res; ePub 2018 Jun 6; Zhang, et al

Exposure to greater maternal maladaptive behaviors, such as cigarette smoking, may result in a greater vulnerability to other environmental risk factors, such as season of birth. This according to a recent study that applied linear regression analyses to examine season of birth as related to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early midlife. Researchers gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (n=548) followed from adolescence to early midlife. They found:

  • As compared with participants who were born in the summer, those who were born in the spring (Beta = 0.34; t-statistic = 3.59) had significantly more ADHD symptoms.
  • In addition, exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in adolescence significantly intensified the association between season of birth and ADHD symptoms in early midlife.


Zhang C, Brook JS, Leukefeld CG, De La Rosa M, Brook DW. Season of birth: A predictor of ADHD symptoms in early midlife. [Published online ahead of print June 6, 2018]. Psychiatry Res. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.056.