CASE Agitated, uncooperative, and irritable
Mr. X, age 84, presents to the emergency department with agitation, mania-like symptoms, and mood-congruent psychotic symptoms that started 2 weeks ago. Mr. X, who is accompanied by his wife, has no psychiatric history.
On examination, Mr. X is easily agitated and uncooperative. His speech is fast, but not pressured, with increased volume and tone. He states, “My mood is fantastic” with mood-congruent affect. His thought process reveals circumstantiality and loose association. Mr. X’s thought content includes flight of ideas and delusions of grandeur; he claims to be a state boxing champion and a psychologist. He also claims that he will run for Congress in the near future. He reports that he’s started knocking on his neighbors’ doors, pitched the idea to buy their house, and convinced them to vote for him as their congressman. He denies any suicidal or homicidal ideations. There is no evidence of perceptual disturbance. Mr. X undergoes a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and scores 26/30, which suggests no cognitive impairment. However, his insight and judgment are poor.
Mr. X’s physical examination is unremarkable. His laboratory workup includes a complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, urinalysis, thyroid function test, vitamin B12 and folate levels, urine drug screen, and blood alcohol level. All results are within normal limits. He has no history of alcohol or recreational drug use as evident by the laboratory results and collateral information from his wife. Further, a non-contrast CT scan of his head shows no abnormality.
Approximately 1 month ago, Mr. X was diagnosed with restless leg syndrome (RLS). Mr. X’s medication regimen consists of gabapentin, 300 mg 3 times daily, prescribed years ago by his neurologist for neuropathic pain; and ropinirole, 3 mg/d, for RLS. His neurologist had prescribed him ropinirole, which was started at 1 mg/d and titrated to 3 mg/d within a 1-week span. Two weeks after Mr. X started this medication regimen, his wife reports that she noticed changes in his behavior, including severe agitation, irritability, delusions of grandeur, decreased need for sleep, and racing of thoughts.
The authors’ observations
Mr. X was diagnosed with medication (ropinirole)-induced bipolar and related disorder with mood-congruent psychotic features.
To determine this diagnosis, we initially considered Mr. X’s age and medical conditions, including stroke and space-occupying lesions of the brain. However, the laboratory and neuroimaging studies, which included a CT scan of the head and MRI of the brain, were negative. Next, because Mr. X had sudden onset manic symptoms after ropinirole was initiated, we considered the possibility of a substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder. Further, ropinirole is capable of producing the symptoms in criterion A of DSM-5 criteria for substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder. Mr. X met all DSM-5 criteria for substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder (Table1).
TREATMENT Medication adjustments and improvement
The admitting clinician discontinues ropinirole and initiates divalproex sodium, 500 mg twice a day. By Day 4, Mr. X shows significant improvement, including no irritable mood and regression of delusions of grandeur, and his sleep cycle returns to normal. At this time, the divalproex sodium is also discontinued.
Continue to: The authors' observations