The rates of late-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) among US infants are now higher than early-onset disease (EOD) rates, according to a recent study. Therefore, combined with addressing intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) implementation gaps, an effective vaccine covering the most common serotypes might further reduce EOD rates and help prevent late-onset disease (LOD). This study used active population-based and laboratory-based surveillance for invasive GBS disease conducted through Active Bacterial Core surveillance in 10 US states. Residents of Active Bacterial Core surveillance areas aged <90 days and who had invasive GBS disease in 2006 to 2015 were included. Researchers found:
- The Active Bacterial Core surveillance program identified 1,277 cases of EOD and
1,387 cases of LOD.
- From 2006 to 2015, EOD incidence declined significantly from 0.37 to 0.23 per 1,000 live births, and LOD rates remained stable (mean, 0.31 per 1,000 live births).
- Among the mothers of 1,277 infants with EOD, 617 (48.3%) had no indications for IAP and did not receive it, and 278 (21.8%) failed to receive IAP despite having indications.
Nanduri SA, Petit S, Smelser C, et al. Epidemiology of invasive early-onset and late-onset group B Streptococcal disease in the United States, 2006 to 2015. Multistate laboratory and population-based surveillance. [Published online ahead of print January 14, 2019]. JAMA Pediatr. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4826.