The REPLENISH trial evaluated the oral 17β-estradiol/progesterone (E2/P4) softgel capsule (TX-001HR; 1 mg E2/100 mg P4) approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2018 as Bijuva (TherapeuticsMD) for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) due to menopause. In separate subanalyses presented at the annual Scientific Meeting of the North American Menopause Society in Chicago, Illinois (September 25-28, 2019), researchers examined E2/P4’s ability to address VMS according to age and body mass index (BMI), ability to address sleep, and appropriate dosing in smokers versus nonsmokers.
The REPLENISH trial was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of E2/P4 for the treatment of VMS in 1,835 postmenopausal women aged 40 to 65 years with a uterus. Women with moderate to severe VMS (≥7/day or ≥50/week) were randomly assigned to E2/P4 (mg/mg) 1/100, 0.5/100, 0.5/50, 0.25/50, or placebo.1
E2/P4 and VMS according to age and BMI
Percent changes in the weekly frequency and severity of moderate to severe VMS from baseline to weeks 4 and 12 versus placebo were analyzed by age (<55 and ≥55 years) and BMI in the study participants.1 The BMI subgroups had similar baseline VMS, but women in the younger age group had higher baseline frequency of moderate to severe VMS than women in the older age group.
Age. The percent changes in VMS frequency from baseline for women treated with E2/P4 were similar at weeks 4 and 12 between age groups. While subgroup analyses were not powered for statistical significance, significant differences were observed between E2/P4 dosages and placebo at week 12. For VMS severity, the percent changes from baseline for women treated with E2/P4 ranged from 16% to 22% at week 4 and 24% to 51% for either age group at week 12.
BMI. When analyzed by BMI, larger percent reductions from baseline in VMS frequency and severity were observed with E2/P4 dosaging versus placebo, with some groups meeting statistical significance at both weeks 4 and 12.
The authors concluded that their subgroup analyses show a consistency of efficacy for VMS frequency and severity among the different age group and BMI populations of women treated with E2/P4.
E2/P4 and sleep outcomes
Participants in the REPLENISH trial took 2 surveys related to sleep—the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS)-Sleep, a 12-item questionnaire measuring 6 sleep dimensions, and the Menopause-specific Quality of Life (MENQOL), which included a “difficulty sleeping” item.2 Except for women treated with E2/P4 0.25/50 at week 12, women receiving E2/P4 reported significantly better change in the MOS-Sleep total, as well as better ratings on sleep problems and disturbance subscales, than women treated with placebo at week 12 and months 6 and 12. The incidence of somnolence was low with E2/P4 treatment. In addition, sleep mediation models showed that E2/P4 improved MOS-sleep disturbances indirectly through improvements in VMS. The study authors concluded that women taking E2/P4 for moderate to severe VMS may experience improved sleep.