Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumor in women originating from the smooth muscles of the myometrium. While some women are asymptomatic, others experience pelvic pain, pressure, and abnormal uterine bleeding. Uterine fibroids also are associated with gastrointestinal disturbances; urinary problems; infertility; and obstetrical complications including miscarriages, preterm delivery, and cesarean sections.
The first successful abdominal myomectomy was described in 1845 but the procedure quickly fell out of favor because of unacceptably high mortality rates. Myomectomies require special skills and, at times, are associated with bleeding resulting in massive transfusions or sometimes unwanted hysterectomies. In 1922, Victor Bonney developed a uterine artery clamp which significantly decreased bleeding associated with morbidity and mortality.1
The latter part of the 20th century belonged to the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) evolution. Currently, video- or robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomies are increasingly employed in fertility-sparing surgery. In 2014, electromechanical morcellators came under scrutiny with concerns about iatrogenic dissemination of both benign and malignant tissues. A media storm ensued, resulting in the 2014 Food and Drug Administration black-box warning, and electromechanical morcellators were pulled from shelves. Data are being collected to quantify and understand these risks more clearly.
While exposing patients to even a small risk of dissemination of an occult uterine malignancy is unwise, MIS should not be abandoned altogether given its advantages to patients.2 Most recently, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists concluded that, although abdominal hysterectomy or myomectomy may reduce the chance of spreading undiagnosed leiomyosarcoma cells, it is associated with increased morbidity, compared with noninvasive approaches, and ob.gyns. should engage in open decision-making processes and explain nonsurgical options with patients.3
The author of this Master Class, Dr. Charles Miller, a world-renowned MIS surgeon, will enlighten readers on the latest development in noninvasive treatment of symptomatic patients. The Sonata system, a promising transcervical (and thus incisionless) treatment modality utilizing intrauterine sonography–guided radiofrequency ablation for uterine fibroids which does not require general anesthesia or hospitalization. He believes that Sonata “will not only be a treatment of choice in the appropriate patient presenting with heavy menstrual flow or bulk symptoms secondary to uterine fibroids, but will prove to be beneficial in women with impinging or deep submucosal fibroids and implantation failure.”
Dr. Miller is on the editorial advisory boards of numerous academic journals and serves as the editor of the award-winning Master Class in Gynecologic Surgery column. For this installment, he has stepped into the role of guest author. Dr. Miller has received numerous awards for his educational contributions and was recently granted the distinct honor of taking the lead in the March 28, 2020 Worldwide EndoMarch–Chicago. It is my pleasure to take part in this introduction.
Dr. Nezhat is director of minimally invasive surgery and robotics as well as the medical director of training and education at Northside Hospital, both in Atlanta. He is fellowship director at Atlanta Center for Special Minimally Invasive Surgery & Reproductive Medicine. Dr. Nezhat also is an adjunct professor of gynecology and obstetrics at Emory University, Atlanta, and is past president of the Society of Reproductive Surgeons and the AAGL. He reported that he has no disclosures relevant to this Master Class. Email him at [email protected].