Serious eye problems were common, with notable progression seen in diabetic retinopathy in patients who had fundus photos taken in 2011 (TODAY) and 2018 (TODAY2). Among the patients, 86% and 51%, respectively, of 371 patients had no definitive diabetic retinopathy; 14% and 22% of patients had very mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR); and 0% and 16% of patients had mild NPDR. None of the TODAY patients had early or high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy, compared with 3% and 1%, respectively, in TODAY2. Risk factors included loss of glycemic control (hazard ratio, 19.23; 95% confidence interval, 4.62-80.07).
None of the TODAY patients had macular edema, whereas it occurred in 4% of TODAY2 patients. In all, there were 142 adjudicated eye-related events reported for 92 patients, for an event rate of 15.5/1,000 patients per year. The events included NPDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, cataracts, glaucoma, and vitreous hemorrhage).
The prevalence of diabetic neuropathy also increased over the duration of follow-up, rising to 28%-33% based on Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument scores. There were 14 adjudicated events reported for 12 patients (2.4 events/1,000 patients per year), including peripheral diabetic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and diabetic mononeuropathy.
“We’ve had a number of amputations; quite a number of toes are now missing in this group of kids,” Dr. Zeitler said.
There have been five deaths so far: one heart attack, one renal failure, one overwhelming sepsis, one postop cardiac arrest, and a drug overdose.
Dr. Zeitler was the senior author on 2018 updated ADA guidelines for managing youth-onset type 2 diabetes. The recommendations where extensively shaped by the TODAY findings and were more aggressive than those previously put forward, suggesting, among other things, hemoglobin A1c targets of 6.5%-7%; earlier treatment with insulin; and stricter management of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and proteinuria ().
The National Institute of Diabetes & Kidney disease funded the studies. The presenters reported no relevant disclosures or conflicts of interest.