Although open surgical resection is considered the gold standard for patients with epilepsy who do not respond to medical therapy, there are several viable alternatives, according to Englot and associates writing in Neurosurgical Review. Among the minimally invasive procedures to consider: stereotactic laser ablation and stereotactic radiosurgery, which the researchers say can offer relatively favorable seizure outcomes, especially in patients with mesial temporary lobe epilepsy. Other options include multiple subpial transections and corpus callosotomy in select patients. Among the palliative procedures to consider are vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and responsive neurostimulation, which the authors say may significantly decrease seizure frequency and improve quality of life.
Englot DJ, Birk H, Chang EF. Seizure outcomes in nonresective epilepsy surgery: an update. Neurosurg Rev. 2016; May 21 [Epub ahead of print]