Bronchiolitis is not a uniform disease between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) infections, according to a recent study. A cross-sectional study of nasopharyngeal aspirates from 106 infants hospitalized with either RSV-only (n=80) or RV-only (n=26) bronchiolitis was conducted Researchers performed metabolomics analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing on all samples, and metagenomic sequencing on 58 or the 106 samples. They found:
- Infants with RSV-only and RV-only infections had significantly different nasopharyngeal metabolome profiles and bacterial metagenome profiles.
- RSV-only was associated with metabolites from a range of pathways and a microbiome dominated by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Conversely, RV-only was associated with increased essential and non-essential N-acetyl amino acids and high relative abundance of Haemophilus influenzae.
Stewart CJ, Hasegawa K, Wong MC, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus bronchiolitis are associated with distinct metabolic pathways. [Published online ahead of print December 25, 2017]. J Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/infdis/jix680.
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