Key clinical point: Levofloxacin prophylaxis significantly reduced bacteremia in children with acute leukemias undergoing intensive chemotherapy, but not in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Major finding: Bacteremia likelihood was 21.9% versus 43.4% for prophylaxis and no prophylaxis, respectively, in the acute leukemias group (P = 0.001), and 11.0% versus 17.3% in the HSCT group (P = 0.06).
Study details: A randomized phase 3 clinical trial, including 200 patients with acute leukemias and 424 patients undergoing HSCT.
Disclosures: The research was supported by grants from the Community Clinical Oncology Program and National Cancer Institute. Study authors reported disclosures related to Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chimerix, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and the Children’s Oncology Group.
Alexander S, et al. JAMA. 2018;320(10):995-1004.