From the Journals

Initial response to novel agents preps MM patients for favorable transplant outcomes


 

FROM CLINICAL LYMPHOMA, MYELOMA AND LEUKEMIA

For patients with multiple myeloma, triplet induction with novel agents beat doublet with regards to early results, according to Lalit Kumar, MD, and colleagues at the All India Institute of Medical sciences Myeloma Group, New Delhi.

The study analyzed 326 multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose, novel agent–based induction therapy prior to autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) at a single institution, according to a report published in Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia.

Between January 2005 and December 2018, 326 consecutive patients underwent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The median age of the patients was 52 years; 66% were men, nearly 33% had Revised ISS III disease; almost 16% had high-risk cytogenetics and 23% underwent transplant in second remission after salvage therapy for relapse. A total of 194 patients (59.5%) received induction with two novel agents (thalidomide/dexamethasone, n = 95; lenalidomide/dexamethasone, n = 63; bortezomib/dexamethasone, n = 36) and 132 (40.5%) received three drugs (bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone, n = 53; bortezomib/liposomal doxorubicin/dexamethasone, n = 42; bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone, n = 31; other n = 3).

Outcomes favorable

After transplant 227 (69.8%) patients achieved a complete response; 48 (14.7%) had a very good partial response, 32 (9.8%) had a partial response, and 9 (2.8%) patients had stable disease. Ten (3.1%) patients died of transplant-related complications (before day 100). Triplet induction beat doublet with regards to early response (95.4% vs. 84.02% [doublets], P < .003), stem cell mobilization (88.6% vs. 76.8%, P < .005) and lower day-100 transplant-related mortality (P < .001), However, at a median follow-up of 62.5 months, the median overall response rate (97.5 months triplet vs. 100.0 months doublet) and the median progression free survival (54.5 months vs. 57 months) were not statistically different between the two induction-treatment groups.

Patients who had undergone transplant in a recent period (2016-18) had a better outcome, compared with initial years, which possibly reflects a combined effect of learning curve, use of triplets, and gradual reduction in day-100 mortality, the authors stated.

“Whether newer regimens incorporating monoclonal antibodies (associated with higher [complete response] rate and [minimal residual disease] negativity) would result in further improvement in survival, needs to be determined in future studies,” the researchers concluded.

The authors reported that they had no conflicts.

SOURCE: Kumar L et al. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2020 Sep 18. doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2020.08.021.

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