From the Journals

CNS cancer outcomes worse for black and Hispanic children


 

FROM SCIENTIFIC REPORTS

Black and Hispanic patients under the age of 19 years are more likely to die from central nervous system (CNS) cancers than are non-Hispanic whites from the same age group, according to a study published in Scientific Reports.

While prior studies have shown the effects of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic risk factors on treatment outcomes in adult cancer populations, less is known about how these factors impact children with CNS cancers, explained study author Robert Fineberg, MD, of St. Anthony North Health Campus in Westminster, Colo., and colleagues.

The authors conducted their study to examine the effects of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in pediatric CNS cancers. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, the researchers identified 1,881 patients with CNS tumors, including both spinal and cranial neoplasms.

Data collection encompassed patient characteristics, socioeconomic parameters, tumor characteristics, treatment, and year of diagnosis. The primary outcomes were overall survival and disease stage at diagnosis.

Most patients were white (78.15%) and non-Hispanic (72.09%). The most common brain tumors were gliomas (n = 788), ependymomas (n = 418), and medulloblastomas (n = 393).

On multivariable analysis, the researchers found that black and Hispanic patients had worse survival, compared with white patients (hazard ratio, 1.39; P = .0014) and non-Hispanic patients (HR, 1.36; P = .0002).

After adjustment for socioeconomic parameters and treatment, the hazard ratios for both Hispanic (HR, 1.29; P = .0051) and black patients (HR, 1.29; P = .0206) slightly declined, but the differences remained significant.

On stratified analysis, poorer survival rates were observed for black and Hispanic patients with both metastatic and localized disease at diagnosis, compared with white non-Hispanic patients. However, after adjustment for mediating factors, the difference did not remain significant for black patients (P = .1026).

“Our findings on extent of disease at diagnosis demonstrated that neither black race nor Hispanic ethnicity increased the chance of metastatic disease at presentation when controlling for mediating variables,” the authors wrote. “These data suggest that racial and ethnic disparities appear to be partially explained by postdiagnosis mediating factors that may fall in the pathway between race/ethnicity and poorer survival.”

The researchers acknowledged that a key limitation of this study was the exclusion of insurance status because of incomplete access for some patients. As a result, potential associations between insurance and survival or extent of disease could not be determined.

“To better understand underlying causes that contribute to the disparity of outcomes in pediatric brain tumors, patient-level data should be utilized in future studies to investigate both biological factors and pre/postdiagnosis treatment gaps in the care of children diagnosed with CNS tumors in the hopes of improving outcomes,” the authors wrote.

In the meantime, collaboration among physicians could help improve outcomes for these patients, according to study author Adam Green, MD, of the University of Colorado at Denver in Aurora.

“[Clinicians] should establish good working relationships with pediatric oncology and neuro-oncology physicians in their community, and they should ask questions early of those teams when they have patients they’re concerned about,” Dr. Green said. “They can [ensure] that patients of minority race/ethnicity, nonprivate health insurance, and lower socioeconomic status have easy and timely access to appointments.”

This research was supported, in part, by grant funding from the National Institutes of Health. The authors reported having no conflicts of interest.

SOURCE: Fineberg R et al. Scientific Reports. 2020 Mar 12. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-61237-2.

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