BOSTON — There is “no standard of care and no clear pattern” for discontinuing treatment in multiple myeloma, according to a speaker at the International Myeloma Workshop.
Data from a large, observational study revealed that a wide range of treatment regimens are used for first-, second-, and third-line therapy in multiple myeloma. The duration of therapy and time to next treatment were shorter in this real-world study than in prior clinical trials, and reasons for treatment discontinuation varied by regimen and line of therapy.
, of University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany, presented these findings at the workshop, held by the International Myeloma Society.
The study,, is the largest global, prospective, observational study of multiple myeloma to date, according to Dr. Weisel. The study, which began July 1, 2016, has enrolled patients in the United States (n = 1,004), Europe (n = 1,612), Latin America (n = 367), and Asia (n = 218).
Dr. Weisel and her colleagues evaluated duration of therapy, reasons for treatment discontinuation, and subsequent therapies in a subset of patients on INSIGHT MM. The researchers’ analysis revealed “broad heterogeneity” across lines of therapy, Dr. Weisel said, adding that patients are receiving multiple regimens in addition to the most commonly prescribed regimens in myeloma.
“In first-line treatment, we see predominantly bortezomib-based triplets ... regardless of transplant-eligible or transplant-ineligible patients,” Dr. Weisel said. “This is followed by doublets and other more rarely [applied] regimens.”
First-line therapies in 1,175 patients included:
- Bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (VCd) – 323 patients.
- Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRd) – 321 patients.
- Bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTd) – 200 patients.
- Bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) – 102 patients.
- Lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) – 90 patients.
- Bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP) – 53 patients.
- Carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) – 47 patients.
- Daratumumab-based regimens (Dara) – 32 patients.
- Carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Kd) – 5 patients.
- Ixazomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (IRd) – 2 patients.
Of the 1,175 newly diagnosed patients, 894 did not proceed to transplant after first-line therapy, but 281 did. Most of the patients who went on to transplant had received VRd (n = 82), VTd (n = 76), or VCd (n = 75).
Second- and third-line therapies
“In second-line treatment, we have still a dominance of the len-dex regimen all over the world,” Dr. Weisel said. “There is an emerging use of daratumumab in various combinations, and then you see the whole spectrum of approved triplet and doublet regimens.”
In the third line, the most commonly used regimens are daratumumab-based combinations and Rd.
There were 548 patients who received second-line treatment and 332 who received third-line therapy. The regimens used were:
- Rd – 130 patients second line, 71 third line.
- Dara – 121 patients second line, 105 third line.
- KRd – 61 patients second line, 17 third line.
- VCd – 57 patients second line, 19 third line.
- Vd – 48 patients second line, 29 third line.
- VRd – 36 patients second line, 8 third line.
- Kd – 33 patients for both second and third line.
- IRd – 29 patients second line, 43 third line.
- VTd – 25 patients second line, 4 third line.
- VMP – 8 patients second line, 3 third line.