Several initiatives are in the works to improve the management of patients with sickle cell disease in the ED, experts said at a recent webinar held by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
In 2014, the NHLBI released evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with sickle cell disease. The expert panel provided recommendations on the treatment of acute complications of sickle cell disease, many of which are common reasons for ED visits.
Optimizing the treatment of acute complications, namely vasoocclusive crisis, is essential to ensure improved long-term outcomes, explained, of Duke University, Durham, N.C.
While the majority of pain-related ED visits in sickle cell are the result of vasoocclusive crisis, other causes, such as acute chest syndrome, abdominal catastrophes, and splenic sequestration, are also important.
The hallmark of pain management in this population is rapid and aggressive treatment with intravenous opioids. The use of individualized doses is also important, but if not available, an sickle cell disease–specific pain protocol can be used, she explained.
Recent evidence has confirmed the benefit of using an individualized (patient-specific) dosing protocol. Dr. Tanabe reported the results of a randomized pilot study that compared two pain protocols for patients undergoing a vasoocclusive episode in the ED.
“The reason we pursued this project is to generate additional evidence beyond the expert panel,” she said.
The primary outcome of the study was the difference in pain scores from arrival to discharge between patients receiving an individualized or weight-based dosing protocol. Secondary outcomes included safety, pain experience, and side effects, among others.
The researchers found that patients who received an individualized protocol had significantly lower pain scores, compared with a standard weight-based protocol (between-protocol pain score difference, 15.6 plus or minus 5.0; P = .002).
Additionally, patients in the individualized dosing arm were admitted less often than those in the weight-based arm (P = .03), Dr. Tanabe reported.
The findings from the previous study formed the basis for an ongoing study that is further examining the impact of patient-specific dosing in patients who present with a vasoocclusive episode. Thestudy is currently enrolling patients and is being funded by NHLBI.
The NHLBI also provides funding to eight Sickle Cell Disease Implementation Consortium sites throughout the United States. The objective of this grant funding is to help implement NHLBI recommendations in the emergency setting.
“One area [that] we want to improve is how quickly we administer [analgesic therapy] to patients when they are experiencing a vasoocclusive episode,” said, of the University of Cincinnati.
Some common barriers to delivering rapid analgesia in this setting include difficulties in obtaining intravenous access, high patient volumes, lack of education, and provider biases, she explained.
With respect to high patient volumes, one strategy that may help overcome this barrier is to triage patients as Emergency Severity Index level 2, allowing for accelerated room placement.
Sickle cell patients undergoing vasoocclusive crisis meet the criteria for level 2 based on morbidity, degree of pain, and the level of resources often required.
Another important strategy is improving education related to sickle cell disease, particularly the high morbidity and mortality seen in these patients, Dr. Freiermuth said.
“The median lifespan for patients with HbSS disease is in the 40s, basically half of the lifespan of a typical American,” she said.
At present, acute chest syndrome is the principal cause of death in patients with sickle cell disease, and most frequently occurs during a vasoocclusive episode. As a result, screening for this complication is essential to reduce mortality in the emergency setting.
Dr. Freiermuth explained that one of the best ways to prevent acute chest syndrome is to encourage the use of incentive spirometry in patients undergoing a vasoocclusive episode.
In order to increase the likelihood of obtaining intravenous access, the use of ultrasound may help guide placement. Educating nurses on the proper use of ultrasound-guided placement of intravenous catheters is one practical approach, she said.
Alternatively, opioid analgesia can be administered subcutaneously. Benefits of subcutaneous delivery include comparable pharmacokinetics, less pain, and a reduced likelihood of sterile abscesses that are often seen with intramuscular administration.
Dr. Freiermuth outlined the quality-improvement initiative being tested at her institution, which involves the administration of parenteral opioid therapy during triage for sickle cell patients undergoing a suspected vasoocclusive crisis. The initiative was developed with input from both the emergency and hematology departments at the site.
Early results have shown no significant changes using this approach, but the data is still preliminary. Initial feedback has revealed that time to room placement has been the greatest barrier, she reported.
Dr. Tanabe reported grant/research support from the National Institutes of Health and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Dr. Freiermuth reported research support from Pfizer.