The incidence of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to rise, according to a recent study. In turn, skeletal-related events are also becoming more common.
Many patients with metastatic disease have skeletal involvement, so knowledge of skeletal-related events (SREs) is more important than ever, reported, of Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, and his coauthors. SREs include nerve compression, hypercalcemia, impending fractures, and pathological fractures, any one of which may require medical or surgical intervention.
Beyond SREs, “bone metastases in RCC [have a] negative impact on progression-free survival and overall survival of patients treated with systemic therapies,” the authors wrote in.
The authors conducted a literature review of skeletal metastasis in RCC, which included 947 patients, assessing incidence and discussing appropriate medical and surgical interventions.
A total of 26.7% of patients with RCC also had skeletal metastasis. The most common sites of metastasis were the proximal femur, pelvis, and spine. It was estimated that 85% of patients with metastatic RCC may experience SREs and related complications, with an average of more than two events per individual.
A multimodal approach is required, potentially involving surgical and medical interventions. For isolated bony metastases and fractures, surgery is often beneficial. Denosumab is the leading medical treatment; compared with zoledronic acid, denosumab prolongs time to first SRE by a median of approximately 8 months and reduces risk of first SRE by almost 20%. Risks of osteonecrosis are similar between agents.
The authors noted that research concerning the impact of targeted therapies on rates of bone metastasis and SREs is limited by patient exclusions in clinical trials. Granted, these agents have likely made for better outcomes.
“Advancement in targeted therapy in recent decades [has] made some improvement in treatment of SREs and has helped in improving patent’s quality of life, but still we are in need of further improvement in treatment modalities,” they concluded
This study did not receive specific funding.
SOURCE: Umer M et al. Ann Med Surg. 2018 Jan 21. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2018.01.002.