All adult patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis should be screened at least annually for cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, particularly in the first year after their diagnosis, according to a clinical practice update published in.
Individuals with primary sclerosing cholangitis have a 400-fold higher risk of cholangiocarcinoma, compared with the general population, and around one-third of cancers are detected within 1 year of the cholangitis diagnosis, Christopher L. Bowlus, MD, of the University of California, Davis, and coauthors wrote.
The clinical practice update from the American Gastroenterological Association was in response to the observation that, while there is significant evidence for an increasing incidence of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplant listing among patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, there is a lack of good evidence to guide cholangiocarcinoma surveillance in these patients.
“The low prevalence and long duration of PSC [primary sclerosing cholangitis] present substantial barriers to better understanding risk stratification, developing biomarkers, and measuring the impact surveillance has on clinical outcomes,” they wrote.
The first recommendation was that surveillance for cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer should be considered in all adult patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, regardless of their disease stage. The authors especially emphasized the importance of surveillance in the first year after a diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis, in patients who also have ulcerative colitis, and in those diagnosed at an older age.
They cited one study that found regular surveillance of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis was associated with significantly higher 5-year survival rates, compared with those no regular screening (68% vs. 20%; P less than .0061).
In terms of surveillance modalities, the update suggested 6- to 12-monthly imaging of the biliary tree with ultrasound computed tomography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging – with or without serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9. However the authors wrote that MRI was often preferred to CT because of its superior sensitivity.
They advised against endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with brush cytology for routine surveillance because of procedural risks. On the other hand, they suggested this procedure, with or without fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and/or cholangioscopy, could be used for investigation.
“In addition to ERCP [endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography] with brushings, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasonography, and cholangioscopy may be used to direct biopsy sampling,” they wrote. Symptoms such as increasing cholestatic biochemistry values, jaundice, fever, right upper quadrant pain, or pruritus should trigger evaluation for cholangiocarcinoma.
However the authors advised “great caution” with the use of fine-needle aspiration of perihilar biliary strictures in liver transplant candidates because of the risk of tumor seeding if the lesion turned out to be cholangiocarcinoma.
On the question of cholangiocarcinoma surveillance in pediatric patients and those with small-duct primary sclerosing cholangitis, the authors wrote that cholangiocarcinoma was so rare in these patients that routine cholangiocarcinoma surveillance was not required.
The clinical update also looked at the prevalence and risk factors for gallbladder cancer, which affects around 2% of individuals with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Two studies found gallbladder polyps in 10%-17% of patients, but the authors noted that “the optimal modality for diagnosis of gallbladder polyps in PSC remains unknown”.
“Because of the high risk of malignancy in gallbladder mass lesions and a 5-year survival rate of 5% to 10% for gallbladder cancer, patients should undergo annual US [ultrasound] screening,” they wrote.
They said the question of whether to perform a cholecystectomy in patients with gallbladder polyps should be guided by the size and growth of the polyps because there is an increased risk of gallbladder cancer in polyps larger than 8 mm and by the clinical status of the patient.
Finally, the update examined the issue of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, which – while rare – may increase with the presence of cirrhosis.
The authors advised that patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and cirrhosis should undergo surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma every 6 months with ultrasound, CT, or MRI.
“We anticipate that with the development of large patient cohorts, advances in uncovering genetic and other risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma, and development of effective treatments for PSC, further refinement of this practice update will be required.”
Two authors declared consultancies, grants and research contracts with the pharmaceutical sector. No other conflicts of interest were declared.
SOURCE: Bowlus C et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jul 12. .