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Prescribed Opioids & Risk of CAP in Patients with HIV

JAMA Intern Med; 2019 Jan 7; Edelman, et al

Among persons with and without HIV, prescribed opioids, especially higher-dose and immunosuppressive opioids, are associated with increased community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) risk, a recent study found. The nested case-control study included 4,246 cases and 21,146 controls (n=25,392) participants living with and without HIV who received care in Veterans Health Administration (VA) medical centers across the US. The primary outcome was CAP requiring hospitalization. Researchers found:

  • Prescribed opioids were independently associated with CAP in those living with and without HIV.
  • The risk for CAP increased with higher opioid doses and opioids with known immunosuppressive properties.
  • In stratified analyses, CAP risk was consistently greater among people living with HIV with current prescribed opioids.


Edelman EJ, Gordon KS, Crothers K, et al. Association of prescribed opioids with increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia among patients with and without HIV. [Published online ahead of print January 7, 2019]. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6101.