Other sources of GBS bacteremia were unlikely based on the examination and imaging results. The patient’s abdominal exam was benign, and no intra-abdominal abscess was detected on CT. Although Streptococcus viridans, S bovis, and enterococcus are far more common pathogens for infective endocarditis,1 there was no evidence of dental caries, gastrointestinal pathology, or urinary tract infection to suggest misidentification of bacteria.
Theoretically, GBS bacteremia after a gynecologic procedure is possible since GBS frequently colonizes the vagina.2 However, most reports document transient rather than persistent bacteremia and/or endocarditis.3,4
IUD insertion as a cause of bacteremia. The medical literature offers scant evidence of endocarditis or severe GBS bacteremia related to IUD insertion. Of 124 gynecology-related reports of infective endocarditis between 1946 and 1986, only 3 were associated with IUDs.5 All 3 women had underlying cardiac disease, and 2 of the 3 had identifiable pelvic infections.5
Among 12 case reports of endocarditis related to gynecologic procedures from 1985 to 2003, therapeutic abortion was the most common antecedent event, and no cases were related to IUD insertion.2 Compared with cases reported before 1985, in these cases most patients (64%) did not have underlying valvular disease, and most had a subacute course with low mortality but high morbidity (8 of 11 patients had clinically significant emboli).2 The study authors also mentioned a case of endocarditis following a Pap smear test, suggesting that minimally invasive procedures may result in infective endocarditis.2
Our patient presented with fever, fatigue, and abdominal pain in the setting of recent IUD insertion. She was found to have GBS bacteremia with endocarditis based on TEE and positive blood culture growth. Her clinical situation was suspicious for a gynecologic source of bacteremia.
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