, based on data from a retrospective case-control study of 1,008 adult patients.
The increased risk of complications for smokers following many types of surgery is well documented; however, “the effect of smoking in the specific setting of cutaneous tissue transfer is not well characterized in the literature describing outcomes after Mohs reconstruction,” wrote Chang Ye Wang, MD, of St. Louis University, Missouri, and colleagues.
To determine the impact of smoking on acute and long-term complications, the researchers reviewed data from 1,008 adults (396 women and 612 men) who underwent Mohs surgery between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2016, at a single center. The study population included 128 current smokers, 385 former smokers, and 495 never smokers. The age of the patients ranged from 21 years to 90 years, with a median of 70 years. Thewere published in J
The overall rate of acute complications was 4.1%, and the most common complication was infection, in 19 cases; others were 10 cases of flap or graft necrosis, 10 cases of wound dehiscence, and 6 of cases of hematoma or uncontrolled bleeding; some patients experienced more than one of these complications. The risk of acute complications increased for current smokers (odds ratio 9.58) and former smokers (OR, 3.64) in a multivariate analysis. Increased risk of acute complications also was associated with a larger defect (OR, 2.25) and use of free cartilage graft (OR, 8.19).
The researchers defined acute complications as “any postsurgical infection, dehiscence, hematoma, uncontrolled bleeding, and tissue necrosis that required medical counseling or intervention,” and long-term complications as “any postsurgical functional defect or unsatisfactory cosmesis that prompted the patient to request an additional procedural intervention or the surgeon to offer it.”
The overall rate of long-term complications was 7.4%. A procedure in the center of the face was associated with a 25% increased risk of long-term complications (OR, 25.4). Other factors associated with an increased risk of long-term complications were the use of interpolation flap or flap-graft combination (OR, 3.49), larger flaps (OR, 1.42), and presence of basal cell carcinomas or other basaloid tumors (OR, 3.43). Smoking was not associated with an increased risk of long-term complications, and an older age was associated with a decreased risk of long-term complications (OR, 0.66).
The findings were limited by the retrospective study design and unblinded data collection, as well as a lack of photographs of all patients at matching time points, the researchers said. However, the results are consistent with previous studies and “may allow the surgeon to better quantify the magnitude of risk and provide helpful information for patient counseling,” they added.
The researchers had no financial conflicts to disclose.
SOURCE: Wang CY et al. JAMA Facial Plast. Surg. 2019 June 13. doi: 10.1001/jamafacial.2019.0243.