Among black infants born preterm, sustained supplementation with vitamin D, compared with diet-limited supplementation, resulted in a statistically significant reduced risk of recurrent wheezing by 12 months’ adjusted age. The randomized clinical trial included 300 black infants born at 28 to 36 weeks’ gestation between January 2013 and January 2016 at 4 sites in the US and followed-up through March 2017. Randomization was stratified by site and maternal milk exposure; 153 infants were randomized to the sustained group, and 147 were randomized to the diet-limited group. Researchers found:
- Sustained supplementation with 400 IU/d of vitamin D until aged 6 months, compared with a diet-limited approach, resulted in a likelihood of recurrent wheezing at 12 months of 31.1% vs 41.8%, respectively.
- Upper and lower respiratory tract infections were among the most commonly reported adverse events.
- Upper respiratory infections were experienced by 84/153 infants (54.9%) in the sustained group and 83/147 infants (56.5%) in the diet-limited group.
- Lower respiratory infections were experienced by 33/153 infants (21.6%) in the sustained group and 37/147 infants (25.2%) in the diet-limited group.
Hibbs AM, Ross K, Kerns LA, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on recurrent wheezing in black infants who were born preterm. The D-Wheeze Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018;319(20):2086–2094. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.5729.
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