Ulcers more likely to close when statin added
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed at a large medical center in the Philippines. It was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of simvastatin (40 mg/d) for venous ulcer healing when combined with standard treatment (compression therapy, limb elevation, and standard wound care).1
Study subjects were 66 patients, ages 41 to 71, who’d had one or more venous ulcers for at least three months. They were randomly assigned to receive either simvastatin (40 mg/d; n = 32) or an identical-appearing placebo (n = 34). Patients were excluded if they were pregnant, had an ulcer that was infected or > 10 cm in diameter, or were taking any medication that could interact with a statin. Patients were stratified according to ulcer diameter (≤ 5 cm and > 5 cm). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the duration of venous ulceration (3.80 y in the placebo group vs 3.93 y in the simvastatin group) or incidence of diabetes (5% vs 3%, respectively).
The primary outcome was the proportion of patients whose ulcers completely healed at 10 weeks. Secondary outcomes were measures of the total surface area healed, healing time, and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Baseline ulcer diameter and surface area and DLQI scores were obtained prior to therapy initiation. The same dermatologist, who was blinded to the patients’ group assignments, evaluated all patients every two weeks until wound closure or for a maximum of 10 weeks.
Overall, 90% of the patients who received simvastatin had complete ulcer closure at 10 weeks, compared with 34% of patients in the control group (relative risk [RR], 0.16; number needed to treat [NNT], 2).
Among patients with ulcers ≤ 5 cm, 100% of the ulcers healed in the simvastatin group, compared to 50% in the control group (RR, 0.10; NNT, 2). Perhaps more importantly, in patients with ulcers > 5 cm, 67% in the simvastatin group had closure with a mean healing time of nine weeks, whereas none of the ulcers of this size closed in the control group (RR, 0.33; NNT, 1.5), and the mean healed area was significantly larger in patients who received simvastatin (28.9 cm2 vs 19.6 cm2).
In addition, in the simvastatin group, healing times were significantly reduced (7.53 ± 1.34 wk vs 8.55 ± 1.13 wk) and quality of life (as evaluated by DLQI scoring) significantly improved compared to the control group.
Study dropouts were minimal (8%; two in the placebo group and three in the intervention group). Using intention-to-treat analysis and worst-case scenarios for those who dropped out did not affect the primary outcome. There were no withdrawals due to adverse reactions.
Statins offer significant benefits for treating venous stasis ulcers
This is the first human study to investigate the use of a statin in venous stasis ulcer healing. This intervention demonstrated significant improvements in healing rate and time, a very small NNT for benefit, and improved patient quality of life compared to placebo.
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