Adhesiveaccording to a study published online on October 9 in JAMA Dermatology.
“Minimally invasive approaches that accurately capture key immune and barrier biomarkers in the skin of patients with early-onset pediatric AD are needed,” wrote, professor of dermatology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, and coauthors. “Because tissue biopsies are considered the criterion standard for evaluating dysregulation in AD lesional and nonlesional skin, it is crucial to understand whether tape-strip profiling can accurately yield key AD-related biomarkers.”
In their cross-sectional, researchers used large D-Squame tape strips to collect skin samples from 51 children under the age of 5 years (mean, 1.7-1.8 years), including 21 with moderate to severe AD and 30 controls who did not have AD. Samples were collected from lesional skin inside the crook of the elbow and nonlesional skin, on the same arm, then subjected to gene- and protein-expression analysis to identify skin biomarkers of disease.
The participants tolerated the tape stripping well, and there were no clinical effects of the procedure. The authors were able to detect mRNA in 70 of 71 samples.
They then analyzed a panel of 15 cellular markers that assessed markers of monocytes and macrophages, T cells, activated TH2 cells, dendritic cells and dendritic-cell subsets, and Langerhans cells. They found that most showed significant differences between lesional AD skin and normal skin.
They also found that levels of OX40 ligand receptor, a marker associated with atopic dendritic cells, the inducible T-cell costimulatory activation marker, CD209, CD123, and langerin protein, were also significantly higher in nonlesional AD skin.
When comparing lesional and nonlesional skin samples in the AD patients, the authors saw significant differences only in levels of colony-stimulating factor 1 and 2.
The authors noted that some of the mediators detected from the tape-strip samples had not been detected or evaluated in previous studies of the use of tape strips in AD. These included measures of cellular infiltrates, atopic dendritic cells, and key inflammatory markers.
“The novel epidermal cytokines IL [interleukin]–33 and IL-17C, which are currently targeted in clinical trials of patients with AD, were also highlighted as novel tape-strip biomarkers and demonstrated significant correlations with AD severity,” they wrote.
“Because tape stripping is painless, nonscarring, and allows repeated sampling, it may be associated with benefits for longitudinal pediatric studies and clinical trials, in which serial measures are needed to identify predictors of response, course, and comorbidities,” the authors concluded.
The study was supported by the Northwestern University Skin Disease Research Center and the Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, and partly by a grant to two authors from Regeneron and Sanofi. Dr. Guttman-Yassky reported receiving grants from Regeneron during the study, and had other disclosures related to multiple pharmaceutical companies. Another author also received grants from Regeneron during the study, and another author had disclosures related to various manufacturers; no disclosures were reported for the remaining authors.
SOURCE: Guttman-Yassky E et al. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 Oct 9. .