In this case, the patient’s altered structural anatomy rendered her more susceptible to thiamine deficiency, which was ultimately found to be causally related to the physician’s failure to order TPN. This raises an important issue in the management of patients who have had bariatric procedures.
This plaintiff had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a significant procedure that short circuits a sizable portion of the stomach and about 75 to 100 cm of the small intestine. This surgery carries long-term risks including bowel obstruction, hernias, ulcers, dumping syndrome, low blood sugar, and malnutrition. The last of these can manifest as low levels of B12, folate, thiamine, iron, calcium, and vitamin D.
Roux-en-Y bypass requires adherence to dietary recommendations, lifelong vitamin/mineral supplementation, and follow-up compliance. Patients who have had bariatric procedures are at increased risk for complications—which also raise malpractice risks. Clinicians must be aware that patients who have had a bariatric procedure have altered anatomy. We must take steps to understand the nature of those alterations and how they impact the present clinical picture.
In this case, the altered anatomy in combination with the failure to order TPN resulted in Wernicke encephalopathy—a condition caused by a biochemical lesion that occurs after stores of B vitamin are exhausted. Classic Wernicke encephalopathy is advertised as a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion, but only 10% of patients will demonstrate a true triad.
Wernicke encephalopathy typically occurs in the setting of alcoholism. However, certain other conditions can cause it, including recurrent dialysis, uremia, hyperemesis, thyrotoxicosis, cancer, AIDS, and starvation. It may be caused by surgical GI changes (eg, gastric bypass and banding) and nonsurgical GI causes (eg, pancreatitis, liver dysfunction, chronic diarrhea, celiac disease, and Crohn disease).
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