Guideline for Cerumen Impaction Management
January 24, 2017
Wendy Gillian Ross practices urgent care medicine in Lake Grove, New York, and primary care in Patchogue, New York. Randy Danielsen is Professor and Dean, Arizona School of Health Sciences, and Director, Center for the Future of the Health Professions, both at A.T. Still University, in Mesa, Arizona. He is Physician Assistant Editor-in-Chief of Clinician Reviews.
The authors have no financial relationships to disclose.
Antidepressants and anxiolytics. Based on the results of their early clinical trials, Sullivan and colleagues concluded that tricyclic antidepressants produced significant improvement in tinnitus symptoms, due to the analgesic effects of these drugs. The researchers studied nortriptyline specifically; in severely depressed patients, the drug reduced the loudness of tinnitus and depressive symptoms. In non-depressed subjects, however, nortriptyline was not as efficacious.25
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have not had the same success as nortriptyline. In a study of paroxetine conducted by Oishi and colleagues, there was little evidence that the drug reduced the loudness of tinnitus, although overall, it did reduce tinnitus bother and anxiety.26
Included in the category of anxiolytics, benzodiazepines have long been used to treat severe tinnitus-induced anxiety, with some success. However, as Elgoyhen and Langguth point out, studies of benzodiazepines for tinnitus have been limited in size.23
The AAO–HNS does not support routine use of antidepressants and anxiolytics for tinnitus bother.7
NMDA receptor antagonists. In a recent clinical trial, neramexane was studied for its efficacy in tinnitus. Neramexane acts at the cholinergic nicotinic and NMDA receptors in the efferent auditory system. Its complex reaction is thought to prevent transmission of unwanted sound not only to structures within the auditory system but beyond, to the medial geniculate body and lateral nucleus of the amygdala. The trial has proved some benefit concerning overall perception of tinnitus loudness; a phase 2 trial is being conducted.27
Continue to: Intra-tympanic anesthetics
Diagnosing and treating dysphonia
January 24, 2017