Guideline for Cerumen Impaction Management
January 24, 2017
Wendy Gillian Ross practices urgent care medicine in Lake Grove, New York, and primary care in Patchogue, New York. Randy Danielsen is Professor and Dean, Arizona School of Health Sciences, and Director, Center for the Future of the Health Professions, both at A.T. Still University, in Mesa, Arizona. He is Physician Assistant Editor-in-Chief of Clinician Reviews.
The authors have no financial relationships to disclose.
The AAO–HNS supports nonpharmacotherapeutic treatment of tinnitus; its guidelines include a recommendation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as primary therapy.6 In addition, tinnitus-retraining therapy, tinnitus-masking therapy/sound therapy, meditation/mindfulness, and yoga all have been studied for their ability to alleviate tinnitus bother.
Anticonvulsants have failed to provide strong evidence of usefulness in the treatment of tinnitus and are not supported by the AAO–HNS as such.6 This conclusion notwithstanding, the anticonvulsants carbamazepine and gabapentin have historically been two of the more common medications used to treat tinnitus.
Carbamazepine is a glutamate receptor antagonist that suppresses seizure activity. Based on prior research suggesting that spontaneous firing within the auditory complex is similar to seizure activity, Iranian researchers explored the hypothesis that carbamazepine might lessen tinnitus severity. Their study revealed, however, that carbamazepine did not statistically significantly reduce the severity of tinnitus, compared to placebo.20 While carbamazepine may be of limited use in the treatment of subjective tinnitus, recent literature confirms that it is not only useful, but also diagnostic, in typewriter tinnitus (ie, having a staccato quality, like the sound of typewriter keys being depressed). Typewriter tinnitus is a secondary cause of tinnitus related to disruption of the stapes in the middle ear.21
Gabapentin works by promoting gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production in the brain. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, thus slowing down signals between neurons. Following on preliminary research that detected low levels of GABA in the inferior colliculus of rodents with salicylate-induced tinnitus, Aazh and colleagues conducted a double-blind study of gabapentin—and concluded that it yielded no improvement in symptoms, compared to placebo.22
Valproic acid has not been formally investigated but is commonly incorporated in the treatment of tinnitus.23 Lamotrigine has provided similarly disappointing results in the treatment of tinnitus.24
Continue to: Antidepressants and anxiolytics
Diagnosing and treating dysphonia
January 24, 2017