Guideline for Cerumen Impaction Management
January 24, 2017
Wendy Gillian Ross practices urgent care medicine in Lake Grove, New York, and primary care in Patchogue, New York. Randy Danielsen is Professor and Dean, Arizona School of Health Sciences, and Director, Center for the Future of the Health Professions, both at A.T. Still University, in Mesa, Arizona. He is Physician Assistant Editor-in-Chief of Clinician Reviews.
The authors have no financial relationships to disclose.
Researchers have discovered that tinnitus is not simply a cochlear phenomenon. The pathology extends well beyond the auditory complex, having a deleterious effect on both the somatosensory and central nervous systems, providing some explanation for the prevalence of anxiety and depression associated with the disorder (see "Pathophysiology of tinnitus").9-17
Because of the insidious nature of tinnitus and lack of standard measures of severity, true prevalence is difficult to calculate.18
Tinnitus can be a presenting complaint or elicited during history-taking. Symptomatic patients should receive full evaluation, including a complete physical exam, medication history, and laboratory workup.
Medications that commonly cause tinnitus symptoms are NSAIDs, chemotherapeutic agents, and antibiotics (eg, macrolides and fluoroquinolones). Amiodarone, ACE inhibitors, proton-pump inhibitors, and calcium-channel blockers have also been implicated. Paradoxically, anxiolytics and tricyclic antidepressants, which are sometimes used to treat tinnitus, have been linked to causing the condition.7
Testing should include investigation for infectious disease, autoimmune disorders, and vitamin deficiency.7 According to the American College of Radiology, imaging is unnecessary in the workup of primary tinnitus. Any suspicion of a vascular cause noted on the physical exam (eg, an associated bruit or venous hum), however, should be explored with imaging. Furthermore, any case of tinnitus that lateralizes also requires additional investigation. Modalities of choice are MRI, CT, and CT angiography.19
Continue to: Referral for audiology evaluation
Diagnosing and treating dysphonia
January 24, 2017