VITALSKey clinical point: Common surgeries increase the risk of chronic opioid use in opioid-naive adults, especially among those using antidepressants or benzodiazepines before their operations, and those with substance abuse histories. Major finding: After adjustment for potential confounders, knee replacement increased the risk fivefold; open cholecystectomy almost fourfold; and total hip replacement and simple mastectomy almost threefold. Data source: Insurance claims of more than 18 million people. Disclosures:The authors had no disclosures. The work was funded in part by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research and the Anesthesia Quality Institute. Claims data came from MarketScan (Truven Health Analytics).