MILAN – The European Respiratory Society Congress 2023 dedicated an entire session to the multifaceted challenges and ongoing debates surrounding progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF). Renowned medical professionals and experts congregated in Milan to explore the current landscape and future prospects of diagnosing PPF, with a particular focus on expediting the diagnostic process.
Anna Podolanczuk, MD, assistant professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, dissected the diagnostic intricacies of PPF, addressing not only the existing challenges but also the opportunities to streamline diagnosis.
As the session’s cochair, Michael Kreuter, MD, director of the Lung Center at University Hospital, Mainz, Germany, emphasized the importance of patients’ voices in understanding and addressing diseases. Joining him as a cochair was Marlies S. Wijsenbeek, a pulmonary physician and the head of the Interstitial Lung Disease Centre at Erasmus University Medical Centre in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
The session commenced with a powerful testament from Elisabeth Robertson, a PPF patient representative from the United Kingdom. Diagnosed with PPF in 2011, her journey to diagnosis was far from straightforward, and she spoke in a video about the frustrations she encountered due to the lack of accessible information. Ms. Robertson called for a clearer diagnostic pathway.
Timely diagnosis: Key to better outcomes
Dr. Podolanczuk underscored the significance of early diagnosis, citing Ms. Robertson’s personal experience as a poignant example. An early diagnosis not only alleviates patients’ uncertainties and anxieties about their future but also enables the utilization of available treatments, such as antifibrotic therapies, which can slow the decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in patients with progressive fibrotic interstitial lung diseases.
Data gleaned from the INBUILD trial was presented, revealing that patients in the placebo group experienced a nearly 200 mL decline in lung function over 52 weeks. Dr. Podolanczuk stressed that initiating antifibrotic therapies sooner could lead to better outcomes, as baseline conditions are likely to worsen over time.
“General practitioners can have a role in diagnosing and managing PPF. They are the frontline. We need to increase awareness, because they are generally not aware of this disease, and they usually think about COPD, asthma, or cardiovascular diseases whenever a patient presents with such symptoms,” Dr. Podolanczuk told this news organization.
Defining the challenge
The foundation of any diagnosis lies in a clear definition and established diagnostic criteria. During the session, it became apparent that different criteria could be employed for PPF diagnosis, leading to the identification of distinct patient populations.
In 2022, the Official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline provided the first comprehensive definition of the PPF phenotype. According to this guideline, PPF is defined by the presence of at least two of three criteria: worsening symptoms, radiological progression, or physiologic progression defined as a ≥ 5% absolute decline in FVC or ≥ 10% absolute decline in diffusion lung CO (DLCO) within the past year in a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and lung scarring other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), with no alternative explanation.
“Definitions from the guidelines were based on the available trials at that moment. Registry data suggest that using different criteria will probably lead to the identification of different, but always progressive, populations,” Dr. Wijsenbeek commented to this news organization. “I think we should not worry too much about the details of the criteria and it is good that we have a multimodality assessment: We ask the patient, we look at the pictures, and we measure the lung function. Combining those data, you can have a robust indication of progression.”