at 30, 60, and 90 days, based on data from approximately 300 patients.
COPD remains a leading cause of mortality and a leading contributor to health care costs, but data suggest that adoption of an interdisciplinary care bundle could reduce hospital readmission for COPD patients,, of Overlook Medical Center, Summit, N.J., and colleagues wrote. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has introduced both penalties and bundled payments for hospitals with excess all-cause readmission rates after hospitalizations, but more data are needed on the ability of a COPD care bundle to reduce readmission for COPD.
In a study published in the Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, the researchers assigned 127 individuals with COPD to a COPD care bundle arm and 189 to a control arm for treatment at a single center. The standard of care group was admitted between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2017; the COPD care bundle group was admitted between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2018. The mean age of the participants across both groups was 72 years, and more than 70% of patients in each group were White. The COPD care bundle was managed by a team including pulmonologists, hospitalists, care managers, advanced practice nurses, pharmacists, respiratory care practitioners, physical therapists, documentation specialists, quality improvement experts, social workers, and dietitians.
The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause readmission among adults with acute exacerbation of COPD.
Overall, the rate of 30-day all-cause readmissions was significantly lower in the COPD care bundle arm versus the control arm (11.8% vs. 21.7%; P = .017). Similar differences appeared between the care bundle group and control group for all-cause readmissions at 60 days (8.7% vs. 18%; P = .013) and 90 days (4.7% vs. 19.6%; P < .001).
Reasons for reduced readmissions after implementation of the COPD care bundle included pulmonary follow-up appointments of 7 days or less, significantly increased physical therapy consults, and significant escalation of COPD maintenance therapy, the researchers wrote.
Notably, pharmacists consulted with 68.5% of patients overall and assisted with access to outpatient medications for 45.7% of those in the care bundle arm, the researchers wrote. Patients in the COPD care bundle group were significantly more likely to have an escalation in maintenance therapy versus the control patients (44.9% vs. 22.2%; P < .001), which illustrates the importance of interventions by pharmacists in escalating therapy to reduce readmissions.
The study findings were limited by several factors including the retrospective design and use of data from a single center, the researchers noted. Other limitations included the lack of data on the need for therapy escalation in the control group and by the lack of controlling for socioeconomic status, which is a known risk factor for hospital readmission.
However, the results support the value of a COPD care bundle for reducing readmissions, and that such a bundle can be replicated at other hospitals, although more research is needed to evaluate the impact of other COPD care strategies, they emphasized.
The study received no outside funding. The researchers had no financial conflicts to disclose.