according to an analysis published online in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
Conversely, a Southern diet, defined as favoring fried and processed foods, is associated with an increased risk of heart failure. The results support a population-based dietary strategy for decreasing the risk of incident heart failure, according to the investigators.
Campaigns to prevent heart failure often emphasize the maintenance of a healthy diet and weight; however, little research has examined the relationship between dietary patterns and incident heart failure in patients without coronary heart disease.
, postgraduate fellow of cardiology and general internal medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, and colleagues sought to analyze the associations between five dietary patterns and incident hospitalizations for heart failure among adults in the United States. They examined data from the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) trial, a prospective study of black and white adults who were followed from 2003-2007 to 2014. Eligible participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and had no coronary heart disease or heart failure at baseline.
The REGARDS researchers’ principal component analysis identified the following five dietary patterns: convenience (for example, Mexican and Chinese dishes and fast food), plant based (for example, vegetables, fruit, and fish), sweets (for example, desserts, breads, and candy), Southern (for example, fried food, processed meats, and sugary beverages), and alcohol/salads. Dr. Lara and colleagues chose incident heart failure hospitalization as their primary endpoint.
The investigators included 16,068 participants in their analysis. Mean age was 64 years, roughly 59% of the sample were women, and 34% were black.
After a median 8.7 years of follow-up, 363 participants had incident heart failure hospitalizations. The highest quartile of adherence to the plant-based dietary pattern was associated with a 41% lower risk of heart failure in multivariate models, compared with the lowest quartile. The highest adherence to the Southern dietary pattern was linked with a 72% higher risk of heart failure after adjustments for age, sex, race, and other potential confounders such as education, income, smoking, and physical activity.
After further adjustments for body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney disease, the association was attenuated and no longer statistically significant. Dr. Lara and colleagues found no statistically significant associations between incident heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction hospitalizations and the dietary patterns. They also found no associations with the other three dietary patterns.
One researcher reported receiving research funding from Amgen and has consulted for Novartis. The other researchers reported no relevant conflicts.
SOURCE: Lara KM et al. .