SEATTLE – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is independently associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction in people with HIV, according to at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population, but hadn’t been shown until now to do the same in HIV. The study raises the question of whether COPD is being managed adequately in patients with the virus, according to study lead, MD, associate professor in the division of pulmonary, critical care & sleep medicine at the University of Washington, Seattle.
The investigators reviewed 25,509 HIV patients in the Center for AIDS Research, a large electronic database of HIV-infected people. They defined COPD by diagnostic codes and inhaler prescriptions. MIs were adjudicated by review.
The team identified 423 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, and 698 who had MIs, including 339 type 1 MIs (T1MI) from a ruptured plaque (54%), and 294 (46%) type 2 heart attacks (T2MI) from a supply-demand mismatch due to sepsis or some other problem. In general, T2MIs are far more common in people with HIV.
COPD was associated with a greater than twofold increased risk of MI after adjustment for age, sex, viral load, nadir CD4 count, hypertension, and other confounders. The risk dropped slightly when smoking – both current smoking and pack years – was added to the model (adjusted hazard ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.63).
The association was particularly strong for T2MI, especially in the setting of bacteremia and sepsis, and unlike T1MI, it remained significant after adjustment for smoking.
The study establishes a link between COPD and MI in HIV, but it could not answer what’s going on. Chronic inflammation from the virus could be at play, but the team also found hints of inadequate COPD management.
“About 60% of patients were on inhalers ... but only about 25% of them were on long-acting inhalers. 75% were only on short-acting.” That’s a problem because long-acting inhalers are needed to control exacerbations, Dr. Crothers said.
The study didn’t capture exacerbation rates, but increased rates could help explain the MI risk. Increased rates of pneumonia could as well, since pneumonia is a common cause of sepsis.
“We need to better manage complications of COPD in this population. I think optimizing long-term COPD management could have many beneficial effects,” Dr. Crothers said.
The National Institutes of Health funded the work. Dr. Crothers had no disclosures.
SOURCE: Crothers K et al.