BALTIMORE – An 8-year cohort study has found that patients with who are prone to worsening of hypoxemia at night have a heightened risk of developing metabolic syndrome, an investigator reported at the annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies
“Considering that we have a very high prevalence of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population, this is a very important finding because it indicates that we need some clinical options of treating OSA in those that have metabolic syndrome to decrease the risk of morbidity and mortality and cardiac events in these patients,” said, of the Federal University of São Paulo (Brazil).
Dr. Hirotsu presented 8-year follow-up results of the EPISONO cohort, an observational prospective study conducted in Brazil, the goal of which was to evaluate the how OSA can impact the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) the general population. MetS is defined as a cluster of three or more cardiovascular metabolic components: low HDL levels, high glucose and triglycerides, hypertension and abdominal obesity. Dr. Hirotsu said that 50%-60% of MetS patients have OSA ().
The study enrolled 1,074 patients at baseline, closing enrollment in 2008, and obtained follow-up on 712, evaluated from July 2015 to April 2016. After exclusions, the study evaluated 476 patients who were free of MetS at baseline. Of those 476, 44% went on to develop MetS.
Median age of patients who developed MetS was 40.8 years vs. 36.1 for those who did not. Patients who developed MetS also had a higher body mass index, but were not obese: 26.9 kg/m2 vs. 23.8 kg/m2. Patients were evaluated by completing questionnaires, undergoing full polysomnography, and having clinical assessments.
Patients with moderate to severe OSA were found to have an odds ratio of 2.47 (P = .016) of developing incident MetS, Dr. Hirotsu said. Rates of moderate to severe OSA were 21.3% for the group that developed MetS vs. 9% for the non-MetS group, said Dr. Hirotsu.
The study determined that the following sleep changes were associated with incident MetS: apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (OR 1.16); 3% oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (OR 1.24); and time with oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter (SpO2) less than 90% (OR 1.42).