Development and evolution of coronary arteriography
In 1955, the first practical fluoroscopic image amplifiers became available to us. This made possible the development of techniques for studying the central circulation with x-ray motion picture photography. By combining the techniques of right and left heart catheterization with contrast visualization, it was possible to develop diagnostic protocols that permitted the simultaneous acquisition of physiologic data pertinent to the study of congenital malformations of the heart with selective opacification of individual heart chambers and great vessels. These techniques made possible a great improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of complex intracardiac malformations at the time when our surgical colleagues were developing intracardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation facilitated by the first pump oxygenators. The evolution of these techniques required the development of insights, which at that time were far removed from the knowledge traditionally required of the cardiologist or radiologist. It seemed evident to me then that we needed people who understood at least the practical aspects required of both disciplines in order to exploit the potentials of what was really a new technology. At this juncture, I am painfully aware that no human on earth commands a full understanding of all the facts that are pertinent to our discipline. The purpose of this Symposium has been to bring together many of those who have participated in the evolution of coronary arteriography. We shall share our insights, hopefully for the benefit of those who entrust their lives to our care. During the period 1955 through 1960, we explored the potentials and . . .