Ocular Fundus Findings in 133 Cases of Diabetes Mellitus

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CHANGES in the ocular fundi of patients having diabetes mellitus have been described frequently since Jaeger’s1 reference to the subject in 1856. Duke-Elder1 states that these changes, consisting mainly of hemorrhages and exudates and known as diabetic retinitis or diabetic retinopathy have been reported in from 2 per cent to 30 per cent of diabetic patients. More recent articles give an incidence of 92 per cent,2 100 per cent3 and 31 per cent.4 This wide variation has been partially due to lack of parallelism in the criteria of diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy and to differences in age, sex, severity, duration of diabetes, and presence of hypertension.

The prevalence of cataract in patients with diabetes mellitus has been apparent for a long time, the incidence varying greatly according to the criteria of cataractous change but generally higher than in the normal population. The association of retinitis proliferans with diabetes mellitus was cited by Fisher1 in 1898. The occurrence of vitreous hemorrhage in diabetes mellitus is recognized as a complication of diabetic retinopathy. Iritis, retrobulbar neuritis, extraocular muscle paralysis and lipemia retinalis are less frequent ocular complications of diabetes mellitus as are paramacular hyaline degeneration, macular hole, optic atrophy, macular choroiditis, disseminated chorioretinitis, branch vascular occlusions, retinal detachment, rubeosis iridis diabeticum, optic neuritis, and central chorioretinitis.

Method and Data

For a period of 6 months we recorded data on new patients requiring eye examinations who were found to have known or previously unknown diabetes mellitus, for diabetic patients who returned for re-examination. . .



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