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In 1805 Bozzani of Frankfort devised an instrument that for the first time permitted visualization of the male urethra. This was the first of three contributions that established principles upon which all later cystoscopes were constructed. In 1883, three years after the invention of the incandescent light by Edison, Newman of Glasgow applied this new source of light to the cystoscope. Boisseau du Rocher, however, is credited with inventing the incandescent light cystoscope with the direct view and megaloscopic optical arrangement.

At the beginning of the twentieth century American workers directed their attention to improvement of the cystoscope. The Kelly indirect endoscope was perfected by Reinhold Wappler and Otis. In 1904 Lewis introduced the operating cystoscope, which permitted transurethral treatment of various pathologic lesions in the bladder. Accessory instruments included forceps, scissors, dilators, and extractors.

The classification of cystoscopes is according to the lens system. Nontelescopic instruments are based on the principle of direct vision through a simple tube, and magnification by lenses is not used. Telescopic instruments are further classified as direct, that is, with the plane of vision perpendicular to the axis of the telescope, or indirect with the field deflected 90 degrees. Cystoscopy is indicated in practically all chronic disturbances of the urinary tract when no contraindication exists. Accordingly intravesical investigation is indicated in persistent urinary frequency, dysuria, or nocturia. In pyuria cystoscopy may be necessary to determine if the causative lesion is in the urethra, bladder, or upper urinary tract. Painless hematuria demands immediate cystoscopy and. . .



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