Although uncommon, major venous injury during surgery for aortic reconstruction can result in massive blood loss resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, according to the results of a retrospective review conducted by Sachinder S. Hans, MD, and colleagues, and reported online in the Annals of Vascular Surgery.
Of 945 patients undergoing major aortic reconstruction, 723 (76.5%) underwent open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair/iliac aneurysm repair; 222 patients (23.5%) underwent aortofemoral grafting (AFG). The number of units of packed red blood cells transfused, location of injured vessel, type of repair, postoperative morbidity, and mortality were collected in a vascular registry on a continuous basis. All patients identified with iliac vein/inferior vena cava/femoral vein injury had follow-up noninvasive venous examination of the lower extremities.
A total of 17 of 945 patients (1.9%) suffered 18 major venous injuries during aortic reconstruction according to Dr. Hans and his colleagues at St. John Macomb Hospital, Warren, Mich. These injuries comprised four inferior vena cava injuries, 10 iliac vein injuries, and four left renal vein injuries (Ann Vasc Surg. 2017.).
Overall, 16 of the 18 injuries occurred during open AAA repair (7 for ruptured AAA, and 9 for intact). Two of the patients with venous injury died (11.8%), one from uncontrolled bleeding from a tear in the right iliac during repair of a ruptured AAA, and the second from disseminated intravascular complication following repair of ruptured AAA. The remaining two major venous injuries occurred during redo AFG (1 out of 6 total) and primary AFG (1 out of 216 total).
The following risk factors were also observed: The majority of the patients experiencing major venous injury were men (83%; P = .002), and the presence of periarterial inflammation (P = .006) and associated iliac aneurysm (P = .05) were significantly associated with major venous injury among the AAA patients.
The researchers suggested the following tips to lessen the likelihood of major venous injury: “Prevention of major venous injury is not always possible; however, keeping dissection plane close to arterial wall, avoiding passage of vessel loops or tapes around the neck of the aorta and iliac bifurcation, particularly in patients with surrounding inflammation and ligating venous tributaries crossing the aorta as they are joining the inferior vena cava may help reduce incidence of such injuries.”
They also suggested that surgeons should be cognizant of the serious complication that major venous injury was for patients undergoing aortic reconstruction, and to be aware that “the incidence of such injury is higher during the repair of ruptured AAA and redo aortofemoral grafting.”
The authors received no study funding and reported that they had no conflicts.