- SSIs after TJA pose a substantial burden on patients, surgeons, and the healthcare system.
- While different forms of preoperative skin preparation have shown varying outcomes after TJA, the importance of preoperative patient optimization (nutritional status, immune function, etc) cannot be overstated.
- Intraoperative infection prevention measures include cutaneous preparation, gloving, body exhaust suits, surgical drapes, OR staff traffic and ventilation flow, and antibiotic-loaded cement.
- Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in TJA patients continues to remain a controversial issue with conflicting recommendations.
- SSIs have considerable financial costs and require increased resource utilization. Given the significant economic burden associated with TJA infections, it is imperative for orthopedists to establish practical and cost-effective strategies to prevent these devastating complications.
Surgical-site infection (SSI), a potentially devastating complication of lower extremity total joint arthroplasty (TJA), is estimated to occur in 1% to 2.5% of cases annually. 1 Infection after TJA places a significant burden on patients, surgeons, and the healthcare system. Revision procedures that address infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA) are associated with more hospitalizations, more operations, longer hospital stay, and higher outpatient costs in comparison with primary THAs and revision surgeries for aseptic loosening. 2 If left untreated, a SSI can go deeper into the joint and develop into a periprosthetic infection, which can be disastrous and costly. A periprosthetic joint infection study that used 2001 to 2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data found that the cost of revision procedures increased to $560 million from $320 million, and was projected to reach $1.62 billion by 2020. 3 Furthermore, society incurs indirect costs as a result of patient disability and loss of wages and productivity. 2 Therefore, the issue of infection after TJA is even more crucial in our cost-conscious healthcare environment.
Patient optimization, advances in surgical technique, sterile protocol, and operative procedures have been effective in reducing bacterial counts at incision sites and minimizing SSIs. As a result, infection rates have leveled off after rising for a decade. 4 Although infection prevention modalities have their differences, routine use is fundamental and recommended by the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 5 Furthermore, both the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee 6,7 recently updated their SSI prevention guidelines by incorporating evidence-based methodology, an element missing from earlier recommendations.
The etiologies of postoperative SSIs have been discussed ad nauseam, but there are few reports summarizing the literature on infection prevention modalities. In this review, we identify and examine SSI prevention strategies as they relate to lower extremity TJA. Specifically, we discuss the literature on the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative actions that can be taken to reduce the incidence of SSIs after TJA. We also highlight the economic implications of SSIs that occur after TJA.
For this review, we performed a literature search with PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Scopus. We looked for reports published between the inception of each database and July 2016. Combinations of various search terms were used: surgical site, infection, total joint arthroplasty, knee, hip, preoperative, intraoperative, perioperative, postoperative, preparation, nutrition, ventilation, antibiotic, body exhaust suit, gloves, drain, costs, economic, and payment.
Our search identified 195 abstracts. Drs. Mistry and Chughtai reviewed these to determine which articles were relevant. For any uncertainties, consensus was reached with the help of Dr. Delanois. Of the 195 articles, 103 were potentially relevant, and 54 of the 103 were excluded for being not relevant to preventing SSIs after TJA or for being written in a language other than English. The references in the remaining articles were assessed, and those with potentially relevant titles were selected for abstract review. This step provided another 35 articles. After all exclusions, 48 articles remained. We discuss these in the context of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measures and economic impact.
Skin Preparation. Preoperative skin preparation methods include standard washing and rinsing, antiseptic soaps, and iodine-based or chlorhexidine gluconate-based antiseptic showers or skin cloths. Iodine-based antiseptics are effective against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These agents penetrate the cell wall, oxidize the microbial contents, and replace those contents with free iodine molecules. 8 Iodophors are free iodine molecules associated with a polymer (eg, polyvinylpyrrolidone); the iodophor povidone-iodine is bactericidal. 9 Chlorhexidine gluconate-based solutions are effective against many types of yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a wide variety of viruses. 9 Both solutions are useful. Patients with an allergy to iodine can use chlorhexidine. Table 1 summarizes the studies on preoperative measures for