Original Research

Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Total Shoulder Arthroplasty With a Hybrid Dual-Radii Glenoid Component

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In total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), glenoid prostheses have conforming or nonconforming designs. A hybrid glenoid was designed with dual radii of curvature: a central conforming region surrounded by an outer nonconforming region.

We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 169 patients who underwent 196 hybrid glenoid prosthesis TSAs for primary glenohumeral arthritis. Clinical data, retrieved for 178 shoulders at a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, included physical examination, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), subjective Neer criteria, and postoperative complication data. Radiographic data were retrieved for 136 shoulders at a mean of 3.7 years. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed with glenoid or humeral revision as the endpoint.

All range of motion and survey measures improved in a statistically significant manner (P < .001). Of 139 respondents, 130 (93.5%) stated they were satisfied or very satisfied with their TSA. Of 178 patients, only 3 (1.7%) required revision for component loosening: 2 glenoid and 1 humeral. Of 136 shoulders, 86 (63.2%) had no glenoid lucencies, and 91 (66.9%) had no humeral stem lucencies.

Use of a hybrid-congruency glenoid prosthesis had excellent intermediate clinical and radiographic outcomes in the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis.



Take-Home Points

  • The authors have developed a total shoulder glenoid prosthesis that conforms with the humeral head in its center and is nonconforming on its peripheral edge.
  • All clinical survey and range of motion parameters demonstrated statistically significant improvements at final follow-up.
  • Only 3 shoulders (1.7%) required revision surgery.
  • Eighty-six (63%) of 136 shoulders demonstrated no radiographic evidence of glenoid loosening.
  • This is the first and largest study that evaluates the clinical and radiographic outcomes of this hybrid shoulder prosthesis.

Fixation of the glenoid component is the limiting factor in modern total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Glenoid loosening, the most common long-term complication, necessitates revision in up to 12% of patients. 1-4 By contrast, humeral component loosening is relatively uncommon, affecting as few as 0.34% of patients. 5 Multiple long-term studies have found consistently high rates (45%-93%) of radiolucencies around the glenoid component. 3,6,7 Although their clinical significance has been debated, radiolucencies around the glenoid component raise concern about progressive loss of fixation.

Since TSA was introduced in the 1970s, complications with the glenoid component have been addressed with 2 different designs: conforming (congruent) and nonconforming. In a congruent articulation, the radii of curvature of the glenoid and humeral head components are identical, whereas they differ in a nonconforming model. Joint conformity is inversely related to glenohumeral translation. 8 Neer’s original TSA was made congruent in order to limit translation and maximize the contact area. However, this design results in edge loading and a so-called rocking-horse phenomenon, which may lead to glenoid loosening. 9-13 Surgeons therefore have increasingly turned to nonconforming implants. In the nonconforming design, the radius of curvature of the humeral head is smaller than that of the glenoid. Although this design may reduce edge loading, 14 it allows more translation and reduces the relative contact area of the glenohumeral joint. As a result, more contact stress is transmitted to the glenoid component, leading to polyethylene deformation and wear. 15,16

Figure 1.
A desire to integrate the advantages of the 2 designs led to a novel glenoid implant design with variable conformity. This innovative component has a central conforming region and a peripheral nonconforming region or “translation zone” ( Figure 1 ). 

Dual radii of curvature are designed to augment joint stability without increasing component wear. Biomechanical data have indicated that edge loading is not increased by having a central conforming region added to a nonconforming model. 17 The clinical value of this prosthesis, however, has not been determined. Therefore, we conducted a study to describe the intermediate-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of TSAs that use a novel hybrid glenoid component.

Materials and Methods

This study was approved (protocol AAAD3473) by the Institutional Review Board of Columbia University and was conducted in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations.

Patient Selection

At Columbia University Medical Center, Dr. Bigliani performed 196 TSAs with a hybrid glenoid component (Bigliani-Flatow; Zimmer Biomet) in 169 patients between September 1998 and November 2007. All patients had received a diagnosis of primary glenohumeral arthritis as defined by Neer. 18 Patients with previous surgery such as rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression were included in our review, and patients with a nonprimary form of arthritis, such as rheumatoid, posttraumatic, or post-capsulorrhaphy arthritis, were excluded.

Operative Technique

For all surgeries, Dr. Bigliani performed a subscapularis tenotomy with regional anesthesia and a standard deltopectoral approach. A partial anterior capsulectomy was performed to increase the glenoid’s visibility. The inferior labrum was removed with a needle-tip bovie while the axillary nerve was being protected with a metal finger or narrow Darrach retractor. After reaming and trialing, the final glenoid component was cemented into place. Cement was placed only in the peg or keel holes and pressurized twice before final implantation. Of the 196 glenoid components, 168 (86%) were pegged and 28 (14%) keeled; in addition,190 of these components were all-polyethylene, whereas 6 had trabecular-metal backing. All glenoid components incorporated the hybrid design of dual radii of curvature. After the glenoid was cemented, the final humeral component was placed in 30° of retroversion. Whenever posterior wear was found, retroversion was reduced by 5° to 10°. The humeral prosthesis was cemented in cases (104/196, 53%) of poor bone quality or a large canal.

After surgery, the patient’s sling was fitted with an abduction pillow and a swathe, to be worn the first 24 hours, and the arm was passively ranged. Patients typically were discharged on postoperative day 2. Then, for 2 weeks, they followed an assisted passive range of motion (ROM) protocol,


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